Recent Changes

Thursday, April 16

  1. page Sexual Abuse edited ... Presence of stepfather Intergenerational sexual abuse = = Effects of CSA {unnamed.gif}…
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    Presence of stepfather
    Intergenerational sexual abuse
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    Effects of CSA
    {unnamed.gif} CSA victims experience feelings of fear, shame, betrayal and powerlessness. In addition to the experience of betrayal caused directly by the offender, a child may experience further betrayal if he/she discloses the abuse and he/she is not believed by the adult confided in. This in turn reinforces the sense of powerlessness (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). The cumulative effects of these formative traumatic experiences are often deleterious to attachment (Zala, 2012), emotional development, and self-perception (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). CSA victims may see themselves as unlovable, and others as potentially dangerous (Zala, 2012).
    ...
    {TRAUMA HISTORY Q formatted.doc}
    {Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI).pdf}
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    Treatments
    Treatment for Children and Adolescent Survivors of CSA
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    11:09 am
  2. page Sexual Abuse edited ... Presence of stepfather Intergenerational sexual abuse = = Effects of CSA {unnamed.gif}…
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    Presence of stepfather
    Intergenerational sexual abuse
    =
    =

    Effects of CSA
    {unnamed.gif} CSA victims experience feelings of fear, shame, betrayal and powerlessness. In addition to the experience of betrayal caused directly by the offender, a child may experience further betrayal if he/she discloses the abuse and he/she is not believed by the adult confided in. This in turn reinforces the sense of powerlessness (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). The cumulative effects of these formative traumatic experiences are often deleterious to attachment (Zala, 2012), emotional development, and self-perception (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). CSA victims may see themselves as unlovable, and others as potentially dangerous (Zala, 2012).
    ...
    {TRAUMA HISTORY Q formatted.doc}
    {Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI).pdf}
    ==
    ==

    Treatments
    Treatment for Children and Adolescent Survivors of CSA
    (view changes)
    11:08 am
  3. page Sexual Abuse edited ... {unnamed.gif} CSA victims experience feelings of fear, shame, betrayal and powerlessness. In a…
    ...
    {unnamed.gif} CSA victims experience feelings of fear, shame, betrayal and powerlessness. In addition to the experience of betrayal caused directly by the offender, a child may experience further betrayal if he/she discloses the abuse and he/she is not believed by the adult confided in. This in turn reinforces the sense of powerlessness (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). The cumulative effects of these formative traumatic experiences are often deleterious to attachment (Zala, 2012), emotional development, and self-perception (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). CSA victims may see themselves as unlovable, and others as potentially dangerous (Zala, 2012).
    Short-term Effects
    ...
    in delayed
    disclosure
    disclosure (__Department of
    {sexualusaaaa.jpg}
    Long-term Effects
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  4. page Sexual Abuse edited ... {https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/Y_x4iVw40wVpJJYli-8O2VGU7S6C8fFeXF1gpqhMyeiZbapqzoWq-wh97sZ…
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    {https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/Y_x4iVw40wVpJJYli-8O2VGU7S6C8fFeXF1gpqhMyeiZbapqzoWq-wh97sZ6sWtKPNjq_wuwCEo2rpdW1CxTVjGkhnyYBaIaCYZomh69nqZpwYLls9uvSkTGVPTpjJRlRrtxktE} Alexander, P. C. (2003). Understanding the Effects of Child Sexual Abuse History on Current Couple Relationships: An Attachment Perspective. In S. M. Johnson, V. E. Whiffen, S. M. Johnson, V. E. Whiffen (Eds.) , Attachment processes in couple and family therapy (pp. 342-365). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
    References
    Berthelot, N., Godbout, N., Hébert, M., Goulet, M., & Bergeron, S. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of childhood sexual abuse in adults consulting for sexual problems. Journal of sex & marital therapy, 40(5), 434-443.
    Brotto, L., Basson, R., & Luria, M. (2008). A mindfulness-based group psychoeducational intervention targeting sexual arousal disorder in woman. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5, 1648-1659.
    Child Maltreatment (2012). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau.
    Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. A. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse–related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
    Deblinger, E. (n.d.). Questions and Answers about Child Sexual Abuse. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from http://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/assets/pdfs/QAChildSexualAbuseED103007.pdf
    Edmond, T., & Rubin, A. (2004). Assessing the long-term effects of EMDR: Results from an 18- month follow-up study with adult female survivors of CSA. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13(1), 69-86.
    Gill, M., & Tutty, L. M. (1999). Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A qualitative study and issues for clinical consideration. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 7(3), 19-33.
    Hornor, G. (2010). Child sexual abuse: Consequences and implications. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 24(6), 358-364.
    Kia-Keating, M., Sorsoli, L., & Grossman, F. K. (2010). Relational challenges and recovery processes in male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(4), 666-683.
    Kilroy, S. J., Egan, J., Maliszewska, A., & Sarma, K. M. (2014). “Systemic Trauma”: The impact on parents whose children have experienced sexual abuse. Journal of child sexual abuse, 23(5), 481-503.
    Leonard, L. M., Iverson, K. M., & Follette, V. M. (2008). Sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction among women who report a history of childhood and/or adolescent sexual abuse. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 34(5), 375-384.
    Leonard, L., & Folette, V. (2002). Sexual functioning in woman reporting a history of child sexual abuse: Review of the empirical literature and clinical implications. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13, 346-388.
    Lev-Wiesel, R. (2008). Child sexual abuse: A critical review of intervention and treatment modalities. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 665-673.
    MacIntosh, H., & Justin, S. (2008). Emotionally focused therapy for couples and childhood sexual abuse survivors. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 34(3), 298-315.
    McElheran, M., Briscoe-Smith, A., Khaylis, A., Westrup, D., Hayward, C., & Gore-Felton, C. (2012). A conceptual model of post-traumatic growth among children and adolescents in the aftermath of sexual abuse. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 25(1), 73-82.
    Miller, R. M., & Sutherland, K. J. (1999). Partners in healing: Systemic therapy With survivors of sexual abuse and their partners. Journal of Family Studies, 5(1), 113-120.
    Misurrell, J., Springer, C., & Tyron, W. (2011). Game-based cognitive behavioral therapy (GB-CBT) group program for children who have experienced sexual abuse: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 20, 14-36.
    Nasim, R., & Nadan, Y. (2013). Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: Establishing a context for witnessing. Family process, 52(3), 368-377.
    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (November, 2011). Center of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs_report2010-a.pdf
    Nelson, B. S., & Wampler, K. S. (2003). Further understanding the systemic effects of childhood sexual abuse: A comparison of two groups of clinical couples. Journal of child sexual abuse, 11(3), 85-106.
    Noll, J. G., Horowitz, L. A., Bonanno, G. A., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2003). Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(12), 1452-1471.
    Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Susman, E. J., & Putnam, F. W. (2006). Sleep disturbances and childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(5), 469-480.
    Putnam, F. (2002). Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(3), 269-278.
    Putnam, F. W. (2003). Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(3), 269-278.
    Rellini, A. H., & Meston, C. M. (2011). Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 351-362.
    Rising Awareness of Sexual Abuse ( n.d.). The Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.nsopw.gov/en/Education/FactsStatistics?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1#reference
    Sanchez-Meca, J., Rosa-Alcazar, A., & Lopez-Soler, C. (2011) The psychological treatment of sexual abuse in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 11(1), 67-93.
    Santa-Sosa, E. J., Steer, R. A., Deblinger, E., & Runyon, M. K. (2013). Depression and Parenting by Nonoffending Mothers of Children Who Experienced Sexual Abuse. Journal of child sexual abuse, 22(8), 915-930.
    Schloredt, K. A., & Heiman, J. R. (2003). Perceptions of sexuality as related to sexual functioning and sexual risk in women with different types of childhood abuse histories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16(3), 275-284.
    Steine, I. M., Krystal, J. H., Nordhus, I. H., Bjorvatn, B., Harvey, A. G., Eid, J., . . . Pallesen, S. (2012). Insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress in victims of sexual abuse: The role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(9), 1827-1843.
    Stephenson, K. R., Hughan, C. P., & Meston, C. M. (2012). Childhood sexual abuse moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Child abuse & neglect, 36(2), 180-189.
    Træen, B., & S⊘ rensen, D. (2008). A qualitative study of how survivors of sexual, psychological and physical abuse manage sexuality and desire. Sexual and relationship therapy, 23(4), 377-391.
    Trute, B., Docking, B., & Hiebert‐Murphy, D. (2001). Couples therapy for women survivors of child sexual abuse who are in addictions recovery: A comparative case study of treatment process and outcome. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 27(1), 99-110.
    Tyler, K. A. (2002). Social and emotional outcomes of childhood sexual abuse: A review of recent research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(6), 567-589.
    Walker, E. C., Sheffield, R., Larson, J. H., & Holman, T. B. (2011). Contempt and defensiveness in couple relationships related to childhood sexual abuse histories for self and partner. Journal of marital and family therapy, 37(1), 37-50.
    Walsh, K. & DiLillo, D. (2011). Child sexual abuse and adolescent sexual assault and revictimization. In Paludi. M.A. (Ed.), The psychology of teen violence and victimization, volume 1 (pp. 203-216). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, ABC-CLIO.
    Watson, B., & Halford, W. K. (2010). Classes of childhood sexual abuse and women's adult couple relationships. Violence and victims, 25(4), 518-535.
    What is Child Abuse? (n.d). Children’s Advocacy Center of Bluegrass. Retrieved from http://kykids.org/resources/for-parents/what-is-child-sexual-abuse/
    Wilson, A. E., Silver, S. M., Covi, W., & Foster, S. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Effectiveness and automatic correlates. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27, 219-229.
    Zwickl, S., & Merriman, G. (2011). The association between childhood sexual abuse and adult female sexual difficulties. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 26(1), 16-32.

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  5. page Sexual Abuse edited ... Sexual Dysfunctions {https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/ULFkWuT0wBkZxMHo12tGUBlCkbBXELSiCWrup7…
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    Sexual Dysfunctions
    {https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/ULFkWuT0wBkZxMHo12tGUBlCkbBXELSiCWrup78jNyohjfYbX9GdNjGO7MGS7PCvwTNpx1VYakod3C0S5iKTkao6rt_dTzA1Oiek7iHnctKs53kDKVpF2T2AnIMVmwWfYM4yquQ}
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    In addition, sam
    ple
    sample from most
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    the population.
    Negative affect and perspective on sexuality
    {https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/FDTpoAVx53bo0Iebvcjr6N3omvEW7kTAV9AmeaDCeok-7MRj4OddAZX9VGR16wlZb78HDRvJPkYTp4Q0JyhaIkj_GtNK84s6wn90eBEoVZuVdjRjJ_UVbC4i3qEWW9NTcBsxSyQ}
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    10:47 am
  6. page Sexual Abuse edited ... For children under the age of 18, approximately one in four girls and one in six boys are sexu…
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    For children under the age of 18, approximately one in four girls and one in six boys are sexually abused (__Department of Justice, 2015__). In 2012, 62,939 cases of child sexual abuse were reported (Child Maltreatment, 2012).
    Women are more likely to report CSA than men and are also more like to report penetrative abuse and to be abused by a family member (as cited in Zwickl & Merriman, 2010).
    ...
    for CSA (Putname,(Putnam, 2003)
    Gender (females are more likely)
    Age
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    10:31 am
  7. page Sexual Abuse edited ... Treatments Treatment for Children and Adolescent Survivors of CSA ... and adolescents. Us…
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    Treatments
    Treatment for Children and Adolescent Survivors of CSA
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    and adolescents. UsingThis meta-analysis currently appears to be largest and most empirically valid article in the area of child sexual abuse. Also appears larger than the research that has been done on adult sexual abuse. Other meta analyses have been completed in the area, but they didn’t use as many studies.
    Used data from 33 studies. Combined, this led to data from 44 treatment groups and 7 control groups. Not all studies were controlled and randomized, as there were far fewer control groups.
    Studies used different outcome measures, but the most common were sexualized behaviors, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and behavior problems.
    All of the treatment groups showed clinically significant reductions in the various outcome measures (and increases in self esteem). The control groups did not show any clinically significant reductions in problematic symptoms or increases in self esteem.
    The studies used many different types of treatments, such as trauma focused CBT, supportive therapy, psychodynamic treatments, humanistic treatments, applied client-centered therapy, and Maslow’s self-regulation therapy combined with play therapy.
    Of these many different treatments, the treatment with the best results combined trauma focused CBT, supportive therapy, and play therapy. Authors theorize this combination allows the therapists to more effectively treat the children and adolescents thoughts, feelings, and behaviors simultaneously.
    Authors state that it is important to individualize treatment for the children and adolescents, as the impact sexual abuse has can greatly vary from person to person.
    Since this meta-analysis was conducted on children and adolescents, the same results may not apply for adults. However, it is highly recommended to use this combined treatment approach when working with younger children/adolescents.
    Longer term therapy treatments had better results than shorter term therapy results.
    Using
    33 studies
    Following up on treating children who have suffered from CSA, a slightly older literature review by Putnam (2002) indicated that CBT for both the child and a non-offending parent was the best treatment. The need to involve a non-offending parent is important because of the support the parent can provide for the child. Additionally, the parent will also need some therapeutic support of their own, as the CSA is often traumatic for the parents as well, especially if the perpetrator was a loved one.
    A recent study by Misurrell, Springer, & Tyron (2011), which included 48 elementary school aged children who had experienced sexual abuse, may also benefit from a game-based CBT group program. The game focused on changing internalizing symptoms, externalizing behaviors, sexually inappropriate behaviors, social skills deficits, self-esteem problems, and psychoeducation. The game significantly improved externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and reduced sexually inappropriate behaviors, but did not significantly improve social skills or self-perception. Even so, this study indicates such a group based CBT game could also help treat this population.
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    4:52 am

Tuesday, April 14

  1. page Sexual Abuse edited ... Effects of CSA {unnamed.gif} CSA victims experience feelings of fear, shame, betrayal and pow…
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    Effects of CSA
    {unnamed.gif} CSA victims experience feelings of fear, shame, betrayal and powerlessness. In addition to the experience of betrayal caused directly by the offender, a child may experience further betrayal if he/she discloses the abuse and he/she is not believed by the adult confided in. This in turn reinforces the sense of powerlessness (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). The cumulative effects of these formative traumatic experiences are often deleterious to attachment (Zala, 2012), emotional development, and self-perception (Træen and Sørensen, 2008). CSA victims may see themselves as unlovable, and others as potentially dangerous (Zala, 2012).
    Short-term Effects
    Not all children exhibit symptoms of sexual abuse. Some are asymptomatic, which often results in delayed
    disclosure (__Department of Justice, 2015__). However, many show initial behavioral changes that can be indicators to adults that a child has been sexually abused. Bed-wetting, thumb sucking, and doll destruction are all examples of regressive behaviors resulting from child sexual abuse. In addition, inappropriate sexual behaviors like early sexual interest, inappropriate sexual knowledge, and sexual acting out are also indicators of child sexual abuse (Hornor, 2010; Tyler 2002; Walsh & DiLillo, 2011). Other short-term psychological effects include, but not limited to, sleep disturbances (Noll, Trickett, Susman, & Putnam, 2006; Steine et al., 2012) and poor performance at school (Walsh & DiLillo, 2011).
    (view changes)
    12:44 pm

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